Simple tips to compose an abstract that is great a medical paper or meeting presentation

Chittaranjan Andrade

Department of Psychopharmacology, nationwide Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, Asia

Abstracts of systematic documents are now and again badly written, often lack information, and periodically convey a biased image. This paper provides step-by-step suggestions, with examples, for composing the back ground, practices, outcomes, and conclusions parts of a good abstract. The main target of the paper may be the researcher that is young nonetheless, writers along with degrees of experience might find of good use tips within the paper.


This paper may be the 3rd in a string on manuscript writing abilities, posted into the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. Previously articles offered suggestions about how exactly to compose a case that is good,1 and exactly how to see, write, or review a paper on randomized managed trials.2,3 The present paper examines exactly just just how authors may compose a beneficial abstract while preparing their manuscript for a systematic log or meeting presentation. Even though the main target of the paper may be the researcher that is young it’s likely that writers along with amounts of experience will discover at the least a few tips that could be beneficial in their future evolutionwriters sign up efforts.

The abstract of the paper could be the only area of the paper that is posted in seminar procedures. The abstract may be the only area of the paper that the referee that is potential as he is invited by the editor to examine a manuscript. The abstract may be the part that is only of paper that visitors see if they sort through electronic databases such as for instance PubMed. Finally, many visitors will acknowledge, having a chuckle, that whenever they leaf through the copy that is hard of log, they appear of them costing only the games of this contained papers. In case a name interests them, they glance through the abstract of that paper. Merely a specialized audience will peruse the articles regarding the paper, after which, oftentimes just the introduction and conversation sections. Merely a reader with a rather particular curiosity about the main topic of the paper, and a need to comprehend it completely, will browse the paper that is entire.

Therefore, for the great majority of visitors, the paper will not occur beyond its abstract. The tone for the rest of the paper for the referees, and the few readers who wish to read beyond the abstract, the abstract sets. It is the work for the writer to make sure that the abstract is correctly representative regarding the paper that is entire. Because of this, the abstract will need to have some general characteristics. They are placed in dining dining Table 1 )

General characteristics of a good abstract


Though some journals still publish abstracts which can be written as free-flowing paragraphs, many journals need abstracts to adapt to a formal framework within a term count of, frequently, 200–250 terms. The most common parts defined in an abstract that is structured the Background, Methods, outcomes, and Conclusions; other headings with comparable definitions may be used (eg, Introduction in the place of Background or Findings as opposed to outcomes). Some journals consist of extra parts, such as for example goals (between Background and Methods) and Limitations (in the end for the abstract). Within the sleep of the paper, problems pertaining to the articles of each and every area will be analyzed in turn.


This area ought to be the part that is shortest associated with the abstract and really should very fleetingly describe the next information:

What exactly is currently known in regards to the topic, pertaining to the paper under consideration

What’s as yet not known in regards to the topic thus just what the study designed to examine (or exactly just just what the paper seeks to provide)

More often than not, the backdrop could be framed in only 2–3 sentences, with every phrase explaining an alternative facet of the information described above; often, also just one phrase may suffice. The objective of the backdrop, because the term itself suggests, would be to supply the audience having a back ground towards the research, and therefore to efficiently lead into a description associated with practices used in the investigation.

Some authors publish documents the abstracts of that have a background section that is lengthy. There are a few circumstances, maybe, where this can be justified. Generally in most situations, nevertheless, an extended back ground part implies that less room stays when it comes to presentation of this outcomes. This is certainly regrettable considering that the reader is enthusiastic about the paper due to the findings, rather than due to the history.

A variety that is wide of composed backgrounds is supplied in dining Table 2 ; many of these are adjusted from real papers.4–9 Visitors might wish to compare this content in dining dining Table 2 aided by the abstracts that are original observe how the adaptations perhaps enhance regarding the originals. Observe that, into the interest of brevity, unneeded content is prevented. A dual-acting antidepressant drug, has been established…” (the unnecessary content is italicized) for instance, in Example 1 there is no need to state “The antidepressant efficacy of desvenlafaxine ( DV).

Types of the backdrop area of an abstract

The strategy part is often the second-longest part in the abstract. It must include information that is enough allow the audience to comprehend that which was done, and how. Dining dining Table 3 lists important questions to that your practices part should offer answers that are brief.

Concerns regarding which information should be available in ideally the strategy element of an abstract

Negligently written practices parts lack details about crucial dilemmas such as for instance test size, variety of clients in various teams, doses of medicines, and timeframe for the research. Readers have actually only to flip through all pages and posts of the arbitrarily chosen log to understand just just how typical carelessness that is such.

dining dining Table 4 gift suggestions types of the articles of accept-ably written practices parts, modified from actual publications.10,11 Visitors are invited to just simply just take unique note associated with very first phrase of each and every example in dining dining Table 4 ; each is full of information, illustrating just how to convey the most number of information with maximum economy of term count.

Types of the techniques area of an abstract

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